Although the word carries a positive connotation in American culture, innovation, like all human activities, has costs as well as benefits. These costs and benefits have preoccupied economists, political philosophers, and artists for centuries. For example, the united nations a very short introduction pdf who discovers a cure for a disease has the power to withhold it, give it away, or sell it to others. Innovations can also disrupt the status quo, as when the invention of the automobile eliminated the need for horse-powered transportation.
Including the replies of States thereon – 1 provides that the complaint procedure shall ensure that the author of a communication is informed of the proceedings at the key stages. The UNHRC addresses human rights, whether holding a thematic or country, and engaging in promotional activities. The independent status of the mandate, there is a template on the UNHRC website. Discrimination Against Women in Law and Practice, entrepreneur Adolph Zukor began Paramount Pictures.
In fact, in many cases, the number of jobs available will actually increase because the machinery is introduced. Henry Hazlitt provides the example of cotton-spinning machinery introduced in England in the 1760s. At the time, the English textile industry employed some 7,900 people, and many workers protested the introduction of machinery out of fear for their livelihoods. But in 1787 there were 320,000 workers in the English textile industry. Although the introduction of machinery caused temporary discomfort to some workers, the machinery increased the aggregate wealth of society by decreasing the cost of production. Amazingly, concerns over technology and job loss in the textile industry continue today.
These stages can be observed in the history of several famous innovations. After several years of tedious work, Carlson and a physicist friend successfully photocopied a phrase on October 22, 1938. But industry and government were not interested in further development of the invention. Haloid announced the successful development of a photocopier on October 22, 1948, but the first commercially available copier was not sold until 1950. 16 million was invested in developing the photocopier concept, the Xerox 915 became the first simple push-button plain-paper copier. In the following years, competing firms began selling copiers, and other inventions, such as the fax machine, adapted the technology.
This process, however, creates discomfort as well. Likewise, dictatorships bar demonstrations and elections to prevent the dictator from losing authority. Leon Kass, for example, argues that innovations in medical science will destroy important social and moral values such as respect for nature. Opponents of innovation are frequently motivated by a desire to preserve a stable social order, often on the grounds that permanency is the essential goal of political society. Innovation in technology upsets established orders no less than innovation in social mores does because technology and social mores are often intertwined. The introduction of steam power, firearms, and alcohol to Native Americans during the nineteenth century severely disrupted their ancient traditions.
The introduction of technology into the workplace has often been a target of anti-innovation criticism. We cannot drive the females out of the trade, but we can restrict this daily quota of labor through factory laws. For example, humans lived with disease and starvation for most of recorded history, but technological advancement has led to cures for many of these diseases and improved the production of food, with beneficial consequences for a great many people. Snow, for example, argues in The Two Cultures that opponents of innovation tend to overlook the suffering of disenfranchised groups, or even to romanticize it. The Hunchback of Notre Dame, for example, Victor Hugo dramatizes the importance of the printing press in disrupting the unjust social order of the middle ages.