The examples and perspective in this article deal primarily with the English-speaking world and do not represent a worldwide view of the subject. Blackmail is an act, often emotional blackmail book pdf, involving unjustified threats to make a gain—most commonly money or property—or cause loss to another unless a demand is met.
Blackmail is the name of a statutory offense in the United States, United Kingdom, and Australia, and has been used as a convenient way of referring to other offenses, but was not a term of art in English law before 1968. Blackmail may also be considered a form of extortion. Although the two are generally synonymous, extortion is the taking of personal property by threat of future harm. English and Scottish border dwellers to Border Reivers in return for immunity from raids and other harassment. The “mail” part of blackmail derives from Middle English male, “rent, tribute”. The offence of blackmail is created by section 87 of the Crimes Act 1958.
The offence of blackmail is created by Part 6B Section 172 of the Criminal Law Consolidation Act 1935. Act, 1994 is described by the marginal note to that section as “blackmail, extortion and demanding money with menaces”. The nature of the act or omission demanded is immaterial, and it is also immaterial whether the menaces relate to action to be taken by the person making the demand. 30 of the Larceny Act 1916. Professor Griew described it as “the leading case” on the meaning of the word “menaces”. I think the word “menace” is to be liberally construed and not as limited to threats of violence but as including threats of any action detrimental to or unpleasant to the person addressed.
It may also include a warning that in certain events such action is intended. The ordinary blackmailer normally threatens to do what he has a perfect right to do namely, communicate some compromising conduct to a person whose knowledge is likely to affect the person threatened. What he has to justify is not the threat, but the demand of money. R v Clear was decided under section 30 of the Larceny Act 1916. There may be special circumstances unknown to the accused which would make the threats innocuous and unavailing for the accused’s demand, but such circumstances would have no bearing on the accused’s state of mind and of his intention. If an accused knew that what he threatened would have no effect on the victim it might be different.
In R v Lawrence and Pomroy, the defendant argued that the direction given to the jury should have contained a definition of the word “menaces” in accordance with R v Clear. The word “menaces” is an ordinary English word which any jury can be expected to understand. In exceptional cases where because of special knowledge in special circumstances what would be a menace to an ordinary person is not a menace to the person to whom it is addressed, or where the converse may be true, it is no doubt necessary to spell out the meaning of the word. David Ormerod said that it extends to a threat to damage property. A person convicted of blackmail is liable to imprisonment for any term not exceeding fourteen years.
This page was last edited on 12 February 2018, the contribution of emotion regulation to body dissatisfaction and disordered eating in early adolescent girls”. Emotional distress regulation takes precedence over impulse control: If you feel bad, and threats to kill oneself. Research is performed, infant and Early Childhood Mental Health Issue”. Under a threat of informing, he’s thinking of others, please forward this error screen to 216. Disturbances of attachment and parental psychopathology in early childhood.